Superhyvää suolistolle! -kirjan viitteet

Tältä sivustolta löydät keskeisimmät taustalähteet Superhyvää suolistolle! -kirjalle.

Tutkimukset on jaoteltu karkeasti aloittain, mutta on hyvä huomata, että moni tutkimus menisi todellisuudessa useamman otsikon alle.

Tutkimustuloksia niin ärtyvän suolen syistä kuin hoidoista julkaistaan kiihtyvää tahtia. Jos haluat seurata tutkimusta, hyvä lähde on PubMed-tietopalvelu, jossa pääset lukemaan ainakin tutkimusten tiivistelmät.

Monia tutkimuksista julkaistaan nykyisin myös kokonaisuudessaan. Olen pyrkinyt helpottamaan lukijoita sillä, että olen laittanut suorat linkit niihin tutkimuksiin, joita pääsee lukemaan ilmaiseksi.

Ärtyvä suolen diagnosointi, taustatekijät ja terveyskäyttäytyminen

Bajor A et al. Increased colonic bile acid exposure: a relevant factor for symptoms and treatment in IBS. Gut. 2015 Jan;64(1):84-92.

Barbara G. Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2011 Aug;13(4):308-15.

Cole J et al. Migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression among people with IBS: a prevalence study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep 28;6:26

Deloose E et al. The migrating motor complex: control mechanisms and its role in health and disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Mar 27;9(5):271-85.

Drossman D et al. Severity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Rome Foundation Working Team Report. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Oct;106(10):1749-59.

Drossman D et al. International survey of patients with IBS: symptom features and their severity, health status, treatments, and risk taking to achieve clinical benefit. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009 Jul;43(6):541-50.

El-Salhy M et al. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases, microscopic colitis, and colorectal cancer in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology Insights 2011; volume 3:e3.

Enck P et al. Therapy options in irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Dec;22(12):1402-11.

Eugenio M et al. Comprehensive self-management reduces the negative impact of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms on sexual functioning. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Jun;57(6):1636-46.

Farmer A, Qasim A. Mechanisms of visceral pain in health and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Scand J Pain. Vol. 5, Issue 2, p51–60.

Ford A, Talley N. Mucosal inflammation as a potential etiological factor in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. J Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr;46(4):421-31.

Heitkemper M et al.Impact of sex and gender on irritable bowel syndrome. Biol Res Nurs. 2003 Jul;5(1):56-65.

Hod K. Assessment of high-sensitivity CRP as a marker of micro-inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Dec;23(12):1105-10.

Jarrett M et al. Anxiety and depression are related to autonomic nervous system function in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2003 Feb;48(2):386-94.

Jerndal P et al. Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety: an important factor for severity of GI symptoms and quality of life in IBS. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Jun;22(6):646-e179.

Kang JH, Kang JY. Lifestyle measures in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clinical and pathophysiological considerations. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2015 Mar;6(2):51-64.

Makharia G  et al. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome: a community based study from northern India. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Jan;17(1):82-7.

Mearin F. Editorial: From the acute infection to the chronic disorder “Don’t worry it’s just a viral gastroenteritis”. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun;107(6):900-1.

Neal K, Barker L, Spiller R. Prognosis in post-infective irritable bowel syndrome: a six year follow up study. Gut. 2002 Sep;51(3):410-3.

Simrén M. IBS with intestinal microbial dysbiosis: a new and clinically relevant subgroup? Gut. 2014 Nov;63(11):1685-6.

Okami Y et al. A randomized controlled trial of lifestyle self-monitoring for irritable bowel syndrome in female nursing school students. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 2013, 3, 328-336.

Patel P et al. Irritable bowel syndrome is significantly associated with somatisation in 840 patients, which may drive bloating. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Mar;41(5):449-58.

Piche T et al. Impact of functional bowel symptoms on quality of life and fatigue in quiescent Crohn disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Jun;22(6):626-e174.

Putkonen L, Yao CK, Gibson P. Fructose malabsorption syndrome. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Jul;16(4):473-7.

Ristikankare M. Voiko vatsan turvotusta hoitaa? Suomen Lääkärilehti 8/2015;70: 481-484.

Salvioli B et al. Autonomic nervous system dysregulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015 Mar;27(3):423-30.

Taft T et al. Moving beyond perceptions: internalized stigma in the irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Jul;26(7):1026-35.

Tillisch K at al. Quantitative meta-analysis identifies brain regions activated during rectal distension in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011 Jan;140(1):91-100.

Törnblum H, Simrén M. In search for a disease-modifying treatment in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2016 Jan;65(1):2-3.

Törnblom et al. Interaction between preprandial and postprandial rectal sensory and motor abnormalities in IBS. Gut. 2014 Sep;63(9):1441-9.

Vanuytsel T, Tack J, Boeckxstaens G. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug;49(8):1193-205.

Wong R, Drossman D. Quality of life measures in irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jun;4(3):277-84.

Wouters M et al. Psychological comorbidity increases the risk for postinfectious IBS partly by enhanced susceptibility to develop infectious gastroenteritis. Gut. 2015 Jun 12.

Zanini B et al. Incidence of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and functional intestinal disorders following a water-borne viral gastroenteritis outbreak. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun;107(6):891-9.

Ruoka-aineallergiat ja ruokayliherkkyydet

Cuomo R et al. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction. World J Gastroenterol 2014 July 21; 20(27): 8837-8845.

Lomer M. Review article: the aetiology, diagnosis, mechanisms and clinical evidence for food intolerance. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Feb;41(3):262-75.

Monsbakken K, Vandvik P, Farup P. Perceived food intolerance in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome– etiology, prevalence and consequences. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;60(5):667-72.

Park M, Camilleri M. Is there a role of food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia? A systematic review. Neurogastroenterol Motil (2006) 18, 595–607


Camilleri M. Physiological underpinnings of irritable bowel syndrome: neurohormonal mechanisms. J Physiol 592.14 (2014) pp 2967–2980.

Chen C et al. Distribution, function and physiological role of melatonin in the lower gut. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep 14;17(34):3888-98.

El-Salhy M et al. Densities of rectal peptide YY and somatostatin cells as biomarkers for the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. Peptides. 2015 May;67:12-9.

El-Salhy M et al. Endocrine cells in the ileum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2014 March 7; 20(9): 2383-2391.

El-Salhy M et al. Endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2014 May 16;6(5):176-85.

Kandil T et al. The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan 18;10:7.

Konturek P, Brzozowski T, Konturek S. Gut clock: implication of circadian rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;62(2):139-50.

Mazzawi T et al. Increased chromogranin a cell density in the large intestine of patients with irritable bowel syndrome after receiving dietary guidance. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015;2015:823-897.

Mazzawi T et al. Effect of dietary management on the gastric endocrine cells in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;69(4):519-24.

Mazzawi T et al. Increased gastric chromogranin A cell density following changes to diets of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Mol Med Rep. 2014 Nov;10(5):2322-6.

Siah K, Wong R, Ho K. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar 14;20(10):2492-8.

Simrén et al. Abnormal levels of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY in the colon in irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jan;15(1):55-62.

Thor P et al. Melatonin and serotonin effects on gastrointestinal motility. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;58 Suppl 6:97-103.

Zhang H. Correlation of gut hormones with irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion. 2008;78(2-3):72-6.

Suolistomikrobit, probiootit ja prebiootit

Bennet S, Ohman L, Simren M. Gut microbiota as potential orchestrators of irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Liver. 2015 May 23;9(3):318-31.

Kajander K. Pathophysiological factors of irritable bowel syndrome, and the effects of probiotic supplementation. Dissertation. University of Helsinki, 2008.

O’Mahony L et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar;128(3):541-51.

Pozzoni P et al. Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult hospitalized patients: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun;107(6):922-31.

Silk D. Clinical trial: the effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic on faecal microbiota and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Mar 1;29(5):508-18.

Stevenson C et al. Randomized clinical trial: effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition. 2014 Oct;30(10):1151-7.

Sun Y, O’Riordan M. Regulation of bacterial pathogenesis by intestinal short-chain Fatty acids. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2013;85:93-118.

Theodorou V. Effect of commensals and probiotics on visceral sensitivity and pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Microbes. 2014 May-Jun;5(3):430-6.

Tillisch K et al. Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jun;144(7):1394-401

Whelan K. Probiotics and prebiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical trials and systematic reviews. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Nov;14(6):581-7.

Wong R et al. Melatonin regulation as a possible mechanism for probiotic (VSL#3) in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blinded placebo study. Dig Dis Sci. 2015 Jan;60(1):186-94.


Espay A. Placebo effect of medication cost in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind study. Neurology. 2015 Feb 24;84(8):794-802.

Kaptchuk T et al. Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 22;5(12):e15591

Shah E, Pimentel M. Placebo effect in clinical trial design for irritable bowel syndrome. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Apr 30;20(2):163-70.


Biesiekierski J, Iven J. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: piecing the puzzle together. United European Gastroenterol J. 2015 Apr;3(2):160-5.

Biesiekierski J et al. No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. 2013 Aug;145(2):320-8.e1-3.

Biesiekierski J et al. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar;106(3):508-14

Carroccio A et al. High Proportions of People With Nonceliac Wheat Sensitivity Have Autoimmune Disease or Antinuclear Antibodies. Gastroenterology. 2015 Sep;149(3):596-603.

Fasano A. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1195-204.

Volta U et al. An Italian prospective multicenter survey on patients suspected of having non-celiac gluten sensitivity. BMC Med. 2014 May 23;12:85.

Volta U et al. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: questions still to be answered despite increasing awareness. Cell Mol Immunol. 2013 Sep;10(5):383-92.

Volta U, De Giorgio R.New understanding of gluten sensitivity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Feb 28;9(5):295-9.

Zanini B et al. Randomised clinical study: gluten challenge induces symptom recurrence in only a minority of patients who meet clinical criteria for non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Oct;42(8):968-76.

Mielen hoidot

Dainty A et al. A mixed methods feasibility study to evaluate the use of a low-intensity, nurse-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. BMJ Open. 2014 Jun 17;4(6).

Reme S et al. Mediators of change in cognitive behaviour therapy and mebeverine for irritable bowel syndrome. Psychol Med. 2011 Dec;41(12):2669-79.

Gaylord S et al. Mindfulness training reduces the severity of irritable bowel syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;106(9):1678-88.

Goyal M et al. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):357-68.


Jang A, Hwang S, Kim D. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in female nursing students with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Aug;26(8):918-26.

Kearney D, Brown-Chang J. Complementary and alternative medicine for IBS in adults: mind-body interventions. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Nov;5(11):624-36.

Tang Q, Lin G, Zhang M. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec 14;19(46):8605-10.

Zomorodi S, Abdi S, Tabatabaee S. al Comparison of long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus mindfulness-based therapy on reduction of symptoms among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2014 Spring;7(2):118-24.


Draeger-Muenke R. Functional Abdominal Pain: “Get” the Function, Loose the Pain. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(1):34-62.

Gonsalkorale W, Whorwell P. Hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 17: 15-20.

Linden J. Brain-Gut Bi-Directional Axis and Hypnotic Communication. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(1):1-4.

Lövdahl J et al. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(1):100-14.

Szigethy E. Hypnotherapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Across the Lifespan. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;58(1):81-99.


Bellini M et al. Evaluation of latent links between irritable bowel syndrome and sleep quality. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Dec 14;17(46):5089-96.

Buchanan D et al. Sleep measures predict next-day symptoms in women with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 Sep 15;10(9):1003-9.

Cremonini F et al. Sleep disturbances are linked to both upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009 Feb;21(2):128-35.

Heitkemper M. Serum Tryptophan Metabolite Levels During Sleep in Patients With and Without Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Biol Res Nurs. 2015 Jul 7.

Heitkemper M et al. Anticipation of public speaking and sleep and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Jul;24(7):626-31

Kim H et al. Impact of shiftwork on irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. J Korean Med Sci. 2013 Mar;28(3):431-7.

Morito Y et al. Association between sleep disturbances and abdominal symptoms. Intern Med. 2014;53(19):2179-83.

Nagendra R, Maruthai N, Kutty B. Meditation and its regulatory role on sleep. Front Neurol. 2012 Apr 18;3:54.

Song G et al. Melatonin improves abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome patients who have sleep disturbances: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Gut. 2005 Oct;54(10):1402-7.

Tooley G et al.Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation. Biol Psychol. 2000 May;53(1):69-78.


El-Salhy M et al. Effects of a health program comprising reassurance, diet management, probiotics administration and regular exercise on symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology Insights 2010; volume 2:e6

Evans S et al. Iyengar yoga for adolescents and young adults with irritable bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Aug;59(2):244-53.

Johannesson E et al. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jan 14;21(2):600-8.

Johannesson E et al. Physical activity improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 May;106(5):915-22.

Kavuri V et al. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:398156.

FODMAP ja muu ruokavaliohoito

Biesiekierski J et al. Quantification of fructans, galacto-oligosacharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011 Apr;24(2):154-76.

Böhn L et al. Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome as Well as Traditional Dietary Advice: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2015 Nov;149(6):1399-1407.

Cuomo R. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 21;20(27):8837-45.


El-Salhy M, Gundersen D. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome. Nutr J. 2015 Apr 14;14:36.

El-Salhy M et al. Interaction between ingested nutrients and gut endocrine cells in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (review). Int J Mol Med. 2014 Aug;34(2):363-71

Eswaran S et al. Fiber and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108:718–727

Halmos et al. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut. 2015 Jan;64(1):93-100.

Halmos E et al. A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan;146(1):67-75.e5.

Hillilä M, Laatikainen R. Auttaako FODMAP-hiilihydraattien vähentäminen ärtyvän suolen oireyhtymään? Duodecim 2015;131(12):1119-21.

Moayyedi P et al. The effect of fiber supplementation on irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Sep;109(9):1367-74.

Muir J, Gibson P. The Low FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Other Gastrointestinal Disorders. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2013 Jul;9(7):450-2.

Ong D et al. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug;25(8):1366-73.

Pedersen N et al. Ehealth: low FODMAP diet vs Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 21;20(43):16215-26.

Pérez y López N, Torres-López E, Zamarripa-Dorsey F. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP). Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2015 Jul-Sep;80(3):180-5.

Schmulson M. Does a low FODMAP diet improve symptoms in Mexican patients with IBS? Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2015 Jul-Sep;80(3):177-9.

Staudacher H et al. Mechanisms and efficacy of dietary FODMAP restriction in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr;11(4):256-66.

Staudacher H et al. Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.  J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142(8):1510-8.

Staudacher et al. Comparison of symptom response following advice for a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) versus standard dietary advice in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011 Oct;24(5):487-95.

Tarpila S et al. Efficacy of ground flaxseed on constipation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Current Topics in Nutraceuticals Research. 2004;2(2):119-125.

Tuck C et al. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols: role in irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Sep;8(7):819-34.

Whelan K et al. Fructan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Aug;62(5):498-503.

Whigham L et al. Clinical effectiveness and economic costs of group versus one-to-one education for short-chain fermentable carbohydrate restriction (low FODMAP diet) in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015 Dec;28(6):687-96.


Reding K et al. Relationship between patterns of alcohol consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb;108(2):270-6.

Swanson G et al. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease. Alcohol. 2010 May;44(3):223-8.


Arkkila P. Protonipumpun estäjien pitkäaikaisen käytön haitat. Suomen lääkärilehti 18/2015,vsk 70.

Barboza J, Talley N, Moshiree B. Current and emerging pharmacotherapeutic options for irritable bowel syndrome. Drugs. 2014 Oct;74(16):1849-70.

Fayyaz M, Lackner J. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb;4(1):41-8.

Lacy B et al. IBS patients’ willingness to take risks with medications. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun;107(6):804-9.

Luukkonen P, Hillilä M. Vaikean ummetuksen hoito. Duodecim 2012;128:1869–76

Mausteet ja yrtit

Ahmad B et al. A Review on Pharmacological Properties of Zingerone (4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone). Scientific World Journal. 2015;2015:816364.

Agah S et al. Cumin extract for symptom control in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case series. Middle East J Dig Dis. 2013 Oct;5(4):217-22.

Aniwan S, Gonlachanvit S. Effects of Chili Treatment on Gastrointestinal and Rectal Sensation in Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Crossover Study. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Jul 31;20(3):400-6.

Bortolotti M. Red pepper: from the kitchen to the pharmacy. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2013 Sep;22(3):253-6.

Bortolotti M. Red pepper: an aid for gut functional diseases with pain? Ann Gastroenterol. 2013;26(3):276.

Chemistry of Ginger.

Esmaillzadeh A et al. Consumption of spicy foods and the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Oct 14;19(38):6465-71.

Giacosa A et al. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(7):1291-6.

Gonlachanvit S. Are rice and spicy diet good for functional gastrointestinal disorders? J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Apr;16(2):131-8.

Gonlachanvit S, Mahayosnond A, Kullavanijaya P. Effects of chili on postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms in diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome: evidence for capsaicin-sensitive visceral nociception hypersensitivity. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009 Jan;21(1):23-32.

Grundmann O, Yoon S. Complementary and alternative medicines in irritable bowel syndrome: an integrative view. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jan 14;20(2):346-62.

Iida T et al. TRPV1 activation and induction of nociceptive response by a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, capsiate. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Jun;44(7):958-67.

Khanna R, MacDonald J, Levesque B. Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul;48(6):505-12.

Kowalski R et al. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 25;10(6):e0130714.

Luo X, Peng J, Li Y. Recent advances in the study on capsaicinoids and capsinoids. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 10;650(1):1-7.

van Tilburg M et al. Is ginger effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome? A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial. Complement Ther Med. 2014 Feb;22(1):17-20.

Thompson A et al. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Nov 28;13:338.


Bian Z et al. Effectiveness of the Chinese herbal formula TongXieYaoFang for irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 May;12(4):401-7.

Chedid V et al. Herbal therapy is equivalent to rifaximin for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 May;3(3):16-24.

 Hawrelak J, Myers S. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Oct;16(10):1065-71.

Liu J et al. Herbal medicines for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004116.

Manheimer E et al. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 May 16;5:CD005111

Müller A et al. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative therapy for managing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Jun;114(6):470-9.

Picon P et al. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Apr 30;10:17.

Shi J. Effectiveness and safety of herbal medicines in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan 21;14(3):454-62.

Teschke R et al. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Apr 21;21(15):4466-90.

van Tilburg MA et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: a six month prospective study in a large HMO. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jul 24;8:46.

Tiwari R, Pandya D, Baghel M. Clinical evaluation of Bilvadileha in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Ayu. 2013 Oct;34(4):368-72.

Wald A, Rakel D. Behavioral and complementary approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Jun-Jul;23(3):284-92.

Wu J. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths? Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2010 Nov;6(11):705-11.

Yoon S at al. Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults: conventional and complementary/alternative approaches. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Jun;16(2):134-51.

Katsaukset kokonaisvaltaisesta hoidosta

Asare F, Störsrud S, Simrén M. Meditation over medication for irritable bowel syndrome? On exercise and alternative treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2012 Aug;14(4):283-9.

Chey W, Kurlander J, Eswaran S. Irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review. JAMA. 2015 Mar 3;313(9):949-58.

Lacy B, Chey W, Lembo A. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2015 Apr;11(4 Suppl 2):1-19.